Satellite automation is such a technology that gives us access to communicate and research on the health of our planet. It also observes global security initiatives. Using this technology disaster risk management and emergency response related to weather forecasting, remote sensing, the geo-positioning, navigation and telecommunication have touched the sky of excellence.
These artificial satellites are rotating around the Earth in various orbits depending on the type of application or instruments on board.
Let’s check out how satellite technology works.
An artificial satellite in a geostationary orbit rotates the Earth above the equator i.e. Zero degrees latitude coincidentally to the Earth’s rotation. It works on a high temporal and low spatial resolution. Earth monitoring satellites and satellites for meteorological uses are located in low Earth orbit. The altitude is commonly located around 500-800 Kms and is very near to polar inclination. As per the location of the orbit, these satellites provide across the globe coverage with comparatively lower temporal, however, the spatial resolution remains medium to high. The reason behind placing these satellites in lower Earth orbit is the humongous cost of space transportation.
There are two types of sensor that a satellite works with.
Optical sensors for Earth monitoring are specially designed to convey pictures in panchromatic spectral format or multi-spectral format. The pictures in black and white that are reflected from the Earth’s surface exposed to every conspicuous light is known as panchromatic. The multi-spectral images commonly consist the four bands (green, red, near infrared and blue) of electromagnetic spectrum. These are considered to be passive. The higher their spectral resolution is, the more accurate information they deliver. These images are quite easy to interpret for a person with a little knowledge of processing of satellite imagery. This happens because the spectrum ranges that are covered by optoelectronics in visible light are quite clear and easy to make out.
Radar Sensors for Earth monitoring are specifically designed to work in the microwave range. These are useful for day and night monitoring. They are all weather synthetic. These are considered to be active. The emanate microwaves towards the Earth. In this way, they record the manner in which the microwaves are reflected back at the receiver rotating around the planet. When it comes to the types of observation, they provide with especially expanded capabilities. To interpret these images, you need to be a pro of radar communication.
In this way, day in and day out artificial satellites are serving us with full coverage of our beautiful planet Earth. With the help of satellite technology, communication has become easier. We can convey our messages to any corner of the globe sitting at home. We get advance alert of any natural calamity and keep ourselves safe. Thanks to them for serving us throughout the year and keeping us updated.